Liquefaction Mitigation

Measure related to shoreline stabilization opportunities to address seismic risk

Looking for more? Head back to the Measures Explorer to check out other flood and seismic measures.


Installation at night © Fugro and SGH
DESCRIPTION:
Strengthened in situ soils (fill only) landside of the existing shoreline. This would mitigate liquefaction-induced settlements that would otherwise damage the Embarcadero, the promenade, the light rail and utilities.



TARGETED MEASURE:
TYPE: Geotechnical

SHORELINE LOCATION:
Landside





DESIGN LIFE:

ADAPTABILITY:

IMPACT ON THE WATERFRONT:

CONSTRUCTION COST:
100+ Years

Low

Minor Landside Intervention

Moderate





SEISMIC HAZARDS MITIGATED:
SEISMIC PERFORMANCE IMPROVED:





Lateral Spreading
Liquefaction

StructuresUtilities & Transportation





MEASURES COMPATIBILITY:
Flood
Seismic
None
Shoreline Stabilization
Bulkhead Wharf Retrofit

Utility Retrofit




CONSIDERATIONS:

ADVANTAGES:

DISADVANTAGES:





  • Locations of soil improvement determined by exposure of utility and transportation system components to liquefaction as well as accessibility to the liquefiable fill from the ground surface.
  • Soil improvement would be limited to the liquefiable fill below the water table.

  • Measure specifically targets the soils which cause liquefaction-induced settlements.
  • Requires less utility relocation work than landside shoreline stabilization measures.
  • Waterfront buildings can remain occupied during construction.
  • No in-water work.



  • Does not mitigate lateral spreading due to shoreline instability.
  • Reduces but does eliminate vertical displacements due to shoreline instability.
  • Requires careful monitoring of utilities during construction.




CONSTRUCTION IMPACTS TO THE PUBLIC:

SEA LEVEL RISE ADAPTATION OPPORTUNITIES:



  • Construction could occur mostly at night with evening closure of the Embarcadero, promenade and light rail guideway.
  • Impacts to users of the promenade and the Embarcadero would likely be limited.

  • This measure does not present any opportunities for sea level rise adaptation.




DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:

  • The heterogeneity of the fill would make it difficult to achieve a uniform density and strength using liquefaction mitigation.


SITE-SPECIFIC CONSIDERATIONS:

  • Areas with a high concentration of utilities and/or large sewer structures would limit access to the fill below and may compromise the effectiveness of the improvement.
  • Difficult to access fill below light rail track slabs.


URBAN DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:

  • This measure does not present any urban design opportunities or considerations.


HISTORICAL RESOURCE CONSIDERATIONS:

  • This measure would not impact any historical buildings


INSTALLATION AND CONSTRUCTABILITY CONSIDERATIONS:

  • This measure would require closely spaced grid of injection points while avoiding existing utilities.
  • Drilling through light rail track slabs to access the fill would be required.
  • Monitoring of utilities during grouting operations would be required.



OTHER TYPES OF SEISMIC MEASURES:
Click the images and links below to explore other types of seismic measures.


Shoreline Stabilization
Nearshore Buttress
Landside Buttress
Drilled Shafts
Super Bulkhead Wharf




Targeted



Bulkhead Wharf Retrofit





Head back to the Measures Explorer to check out flood measures.


Measure related to shoreline stabilization opportunities to address seismic risk

Looking for more? Head back to the Measures Explorer to check out other flood and seismic measures.


Installation at night © Fugro and SGH
DESCRIPTION:
Strengthened in situ soils (fill only) landside of the existing shoreline. This would mitigate liquefaction-induced settlements that would otherwise damage the Embarcadero, the promenade, the light rail and utilities.



TARGETED MEASURE:
TYPE: Geotechnical

SHORELINE LOCATION:
Landside





DESIGN LIFE:

ADAPTABILITY:

IMPACT ON THE WATERFRONT:

CONSTRUCTION COST:
100+ Years

Low

Minor Landside Intervention

Moderate





SEISMIC HAZARDS MITIGATED:
SEISMIC PERFORMANCE IMPROVED:





Lateral Spreading
Liquefaction

StructuresUtilities & Transportation





MEASURES COMPATIBILITY:
Flood
Seismic
None
Shoreline Stabilization
Bulkhead Wharf Retrofit

Utility Retrofit




CONSIDERATIONS:

ADVANTAGES:

DISADVANTAGES:





  • Locations of soil improvement determined by exposure of utility and transportation system components to liquefaction as well as accessibility to the liquefiable fill from the ground surface.
  • Soil improvement would be limited to the liquefiable fill below the water table.

  • Measure specifically targets the soils which cause liquefaction-induced settlements.
  • Requires less utility relocation work than landside shoreline stabilization measures.
  • Waterfront buildings can remain occupied during construction.
  • No in-water work.



  • Does not mitigate lateral spreading due to shoreline instability.
  • Reduces but does eliminate vertical displacements due to shoreline instability.
  • Requires careful monitoring of utilities during construction.




CONSTRUCTION IMPACTS TO THE PUBLIC:

SEA LEVEL RISE ADAPTATION OPPORTUNITIES:



  • Construction could occur mostly at night with evening closure of the Embarcadero, promenade and light rail guideway.
  • Impacts to users of the promenade and the Embarcadero would likely be limited.

  • This measure does not present any opportunities for sea level rise adaptation.




DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:

  • The heterogeneity of the fill would make it difficult to achieve a uniform density and strength using liquefaction mitigation.


SITE-SPECIFIC CONSIDERATIONS:

  • Areas with a high concentration of utilities and/or large sewer structures would limit access to the fill below and may compromise the effectiveness of the improvement.
  • Difficult to access fill below light rail track slabs.


URBAN DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:

  • This measure does not present any urban design opportunities or considerations.


HISTORICAL RESOURCE CONSIDERATIONS:

  • This measure would not impact any historical buildings


INSTALLATION AND CONSTRUCTABILITY CONSIDERATIONS:

  • This measure would require closely spaced grid of injection points while avoiding existing utilities.
  • Drilling through light rail track slabs to access the fill would be required.
  • Monitoring of utilities during grouting operations would be required.



OTHER TYPES OF SEISMIC MEASURES:
Click the images and links below to explore other types of seismic measures.


Shoreline Stabilization
Nearshore Buttress
Landside Buttress
Drilled Shafts
Super Bulkhead Wharf




Targeted



Bulkhead Wharf Retrofit





Head back to the Measures Explorer to check out flood measures.


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