Raised Feature

Measure under the Floodwall measures related to physical infrastructure opportunities to address flood risk

Looking for more? Head back to the Measures Explorer to check out other flood and seismic measures.


Promenade Seawall in Morecambe, UK - ©Atkins


DESCRIPTION:
A concrete wall can provide flood protection in upland areas. These walls can be integrated into the environment as planters or benches. The height will vary depending on existing grade. These features can be clad with architectural materials such as brick, stone, or metal. Existing concrete walls can also be raised by doweling new concrete into an existing concrete structure.


PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE
SHORELINE LOCATION: Upland




DESIGN LIFE:
ADAPTABILITY:
IMPACT ON THE WATERFRONT:
CONSTRUCTION COST:
50 -100 Years
Varies
Minor Intervention
TBD




COASTAL FLOOD HAZARDS MITIGATED:





Sea Level Rise
Storm Surge
Groundwater
Waves
Erosion





MEASURES COMPATIBILITY:
ECOSYSTEM SERVICES: Measure may affect these shoreline values
Flood
Seismic
Levee
Seawall
Raised Structures
All
Aquatic Habitat
Terrestrial Habitat
Water Quality
Carbon Storage




CONSIDERATIONS:

ADVANTAGES:

DISADVANTAGES:





  • Layout of features needs to accommodate circulation, access, and egress from buildings and public ways
  • Height relative to adjacent grades should be considered in relation to views, safety, and comfort

  • Permanent
  • No operational cost
  • No storage or deployment
  • Habitat creation and aesthetics improvement

  • Maintenance required for plantings
  • Higher construction cost compared to most deployable measures
  • Restricts access and should be used in combination with gates for roadway and pedestrian access points
  • Limited to specific locations along the waterfront
  • Customization required




CONSTRUCTION IMPACTS TO THE PUBLIC:

SEA LEVEL RISE ADAPTATION OPPORTUNITIES:

CASE STUDIES:





  • Typical construction methods for installation of concrete features. Construction will require limited disruptions of pedestrian and vehicular traffic in area of construction.

  • Once built, limited capacity to adapt to higher water levels

  • Morecambe, UK




DESIGN OPPORTUNITIES:





Ecological Enhancements

Urban Design

Form
  • Raised features that are built as planters can provide vegetated habitat

  • Can be designed as planters and benches to enhance the public realm

  • As long as the flood protection measure elevation is maintained these features can be designed in many forms and shape




DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:

  • Should be designed to withstand static and dynamic loads due to hydrostatic pressure, wind loads, debris impacts and seismic.
  • Gradient and alignment are flexible.


ARCHITECTURAL CONSIDERATIONS:

  • The spacing and location of permanent planters should be considered so that exit doors, stairs or ramps, and egress routes from buildings and public ways are not obstructed. Changes to existing level/grade and/or existing steps should be considered, as well as materials and their maintenance and repair; and their interaction with existing buildings, railings, and pier structures.


HISTORICAL RESOURCE CONSIDERATIONS:

  • Raised planters should be located/attached in such a manner as to avoid physical damage to historic structures. When placed near historic structures, the design should be compatible with the character of the structure. Planters should not be fastened to existing historic building facades. If the system is deployed in pathways between historic structures, the joints or connections to the adjacent structures should be designed to avoid damage to the historic structures.


SITE-SPECIFIC CONSIDERATIONS:

  • Consider using in combination with temporary deployable measures at pedestrian crossings and intersections along existing median.
  • Could be used as an alternative to raising the existing seawall.


URBAN DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:

  • Planting material should be adaptable to the local climate and easily maintained to ensure it is a positive aesthetic urban design element. Irrigation should be provided. As a solid material, the raised planter’s height should be below 2 feet for as much of the length as possible to preserve views. Depending on the location, the barriers may restrict access and circulation. The raised planter should be of high quality and durable materials compatible with the urban context and resistant to the marine environment – the selection of concrete is appropriate for the context.


INSTALLATION AND CONSTRUCTABILITY CONSIDERATIONS:

  • Typical construction of reinforced concrete or precast units anchored to the existing grade. Land-based work requiring disruptions to vehicular and pedestrian traffic in the area of construction for delivery and installation of materials. Demolition of existing surface may be required to install foundation. The general installation procedure includes: 1) preparation of existing grade, 2) installation of connections or foundation, 3) construction of watertight concrete box structure, and 4) placement of landscape or other aesthetic features.


OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE CONSIDERATIONS:

  • Maintenance of the landscape elements included in the concrete box structure will vary depending on type. Regular inspection of the concrete and landscape elements will be required to address any vandalism or damage that occurs over time. If plantings are included, then irrigation would be required. Service life can be in excess of 50 years based on loads, design criteria and material used, as well as inspection and maintenance frequency.


Other Types of Floodwalls:

Click the image and link below to check out other types of Floodwalls.



Barrier Railing



Head back to the Measures Explorer to check out other flood and seismic measures.


Measure under the Floodwall measures related to physical infrastructure opportunities to address flood risk

Looking for more? Head back to the Measures Explorer to check out other flood and seismic measures.


Promenade Seawall in Morecambe, UK - ©Atkins


DESCRIPTION:
A concrete wall can provide flood protection in upland areas. These walls can be integrated into the environment as planters or benches. The height will vary depending on existing grade. These features can be clad with architectural materials such as brick, stone, or metal. Existing concrete walls can also be raised by doweling new concrete into an existing concrete structure.


PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE
SHORELINE LOCATION: Upland




DESIGN LIFE:
ADAPTABILITY:
IMPACT ON THE WATERFRONT:
CONSTRUCTION COST:
50 -100 Years
Varies
Minor Intervention
TBD




COASTAL FLOOD HAZARDS MITIGATED:





Sea Level Rise
Storm Surge
Groundwater
Waves
Erosion





MEASURES COMPATIBILITY:
ECOSYSTEM SERVICES: Measure may affect these shoreline values
Flood
Seismic
Levee
Seawall
Raised Structures
All
Aquatic Habitat
Terrestrial Habitat
Water Quality
Carbon Storage




CONSIDERATIONS:

ADVANTAGES:

DISADVANTAGES:





  • Layout of features needs to accommodate circulation, access, and egress from buildings and public ways
  • Height relative to adjacent grades should be considered in relation to views, safety, and comfort

  • Permanent
  • No operational cost
  • No storage or deployment
  • Habitat creation and aesthetics improvement

  • Maintenance required for plantings
  • Higher construction cost compared to most deployable measures
  • Restricts access and should be used in combination with gates for roadway and pedestrian access points
  • Limited to specific locations along the waterfront
  • Customization required




CONSTRUCTION IMPACTS TO THE PUBLIC:

SEA LEVEL RISE ADAPTATION OPPORTUNITIES:

CASE STUDIES:





  • Typical construction methods for installation of concrete features. Construction will require limited disruptions of pedestrian and vehicular traffic in area of construction.

  • Once built, limited capacity to adapt to higher water levels

  • Morecambe, UK




DESIGN OPPORTUNITIES:





Ecological Enhancements

Urban Design

Form
  • Raised features that are built as planters can provide vegetated habitat

  • Can be designed as planters and benches to enhance the public realm

  • As long as the flood protection measure elevation is maintained these features can be designed in many forms and shape




DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:

  • Should be designed to withstand static and dynamic loads due to hydrostatic pressure, wind loads, debris impacts and seismic.
  • Gradient and alignment are flexible.


ARCHITECTURAL CONSIDERATIONS:

  • The spacing and location of permanent planters should be considered so that exit doors, stairs or ramps, and egress routes from buildings and public ways are not obstructed. Changes to existing level/grade and/or existing steps should be considered, as well as materials and their maintenance and repair; and their interaction with existing buildings, railings, and pier structures.


HISTORICAL RESOURCE CONSIDERATIONS:

  • Raised planters should be located/attached in such a manner as to avoid physical damage to historic structures. When placed near historic structures, the design should be compatible with the character of the structure. Planters should not be fastened to existing historic building facades. If the system is deployed in pathways between historic structures, the joints or connections to the adjacent structures should be designed to avoid damage to the historic structures.


SITE-SPECIFIC CONSIDERATIONS:

  • Consider using in combination with temporary deployable measures at pedestrian crossings and intersections along existing median.
  • Could be used as an alternative to raising the existing seawall.


URBAN DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:

  • Planting material should be adaptable to the local climate and easily maintained to ensure it is a positive aesthetic urban design element. Irrigation should be provided. As a solid material, the raised planter’s height should be below 2 feet for as much of the length as possible to preserve views. Depending on the location, the barriers may restrict access and circulation. The raised planter should be of high quality and durable materials compatible with the urban context and resistant to the marine environment – the selection of concrete is appropriate for the context.


INSTALLATION AND CONSTRUCTABILITY CONSIDERATIONS:

  • Typical construction of reinforced concrete or precast units anchored to the existing grade. Land-based work requiring disruptions to vehicular and pedestrian traffic in the area of construction for delivery and installation of materials. Demolition of existing surface may be required to install foundation. The general installation procedure includes: 1) preparation of existing grade, 2) installation of connections or foundation, 3) construction of watertight concrete box structure, and 4) placement of landscape or other aesthetic features.


OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE CONSIDERATIONS:

  • Maintenance of the landscape elements included in the concrete box structure will vary depending on type. Regular inspection of the concrete and landscape elements will be required to address any vandalism or damage that occurs over time. If plantings are included, then irrigation would be required. Service life can be in excess of 50 years based on loads, design criteria and material used, as well as inspection and maintenance frequency.


Other Types of Floodwalls:

Click the image and link below to check out other types of Floodwalls.



Barrier Railing



Head back to the Measures Explorer to check out other flood and seismic measures.


  • Thank you for learning about ways to strengthen the waterfront through the Measures Explorer! Please share your feedback on the Raised Feature measure.

    Would you like to see it prioritized as a potential solution along San Francisco's waterfront? Do you have any concerns or input you would like to share about this measure?

    The Port wants to hear from you!

    Share Feedback